The Hiri, Ottappa and Order
Lokapāla Dharma are the two principles that guard or protect the world, or they are called the guardians of the world. Loka+ Pāla, loka means the world, and pāla, guard, or guardian. The principles will protect the world, prevent wars, conflicts, exploitations, natural depletions, national and international tensions, and evil game from happening. In contrast, Alokapāladharma is the two principles that destroy the world, spoil and create interpersonal, national, regional and international tensions. The protectors or the creators of the world are those who uphold the Lokapāladharman, hiri and ottappa.
- Hiri: Pāli-dictionary translates as shyness, sense of shame of evil. Bikkhu Bodhi explained as “an innate sense of shame over moral transgression” “the voice of conscience, internal references, self-respect, and feeling of personal honor”. As human beings, people have the sense of intuitions of what is right and wrong, and as a dignified person, it is shameful to do the wrong thing whether others people know.
- Ottappa: sense of fear of evil deed and its consequences. If Hiri is an internal conscience of remorse, self-criticism, and self-punishment, then Ottappa is a fear of criticism from others, legal punishment, and afraid of going hell aft death.