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World Peace, Happiness, Nature of disputes and problems

The goals of Buddhist teachings are Sukha (happiness), Nirotha (liberation from any state of suffering), and Sammagi (solidarity), Nirvarana (peace, tranquility, and distinction). Buddha praised peace and happiness, Natthi Santi Paraṁ Sukhaṁ: tranquility is the greatest happiness.  Nibhãnaṁ Paraṁ Vadanti: Peace is the foremost. “O, monks, you should see the conflict as the greatest fear, and the worse enemy of peace. You should see unity as greatest peace”.

However, Conflict is one part of human life. People, even though, need peace and harmony, it is inevitable to face the state of internal and external disturbances whether on water, land, eating, drinking, sleeping, speaking, urination, interest, concepts, etc. All the disputes destine to three results, a) tensions, b) destruction, and c) progression. Buddha, in vinaya, divided the disputes into four main kinds to problem-resolving as follows:

  1. vivādādhikaraṇa:  dispute over rules, principles, laws, ideas, teachings, and concepts, what is right and what is wrong.
  2. anuvādādhikaraṇa: dispute over interest and accusation of each other in a serious fault, or committing the serious mistake.
  3. apattādhikaraṇa: dispute over infringement of rules, minor rules abusing.
  4. kiccādhikaraṇa: disagreement on the procedures and processes of working.